01

Fire resistance and smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems, opening windows and their construction components - Part 3: Smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems.

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UNI EN 1634-3:2005

Clienti:

With this standard, tests can be carried out with medium temperature smokes at 200 °C (Sm) and cold smokes (Sa). The loss is estimated in cubic metres per hour per metre of joint length, except for the lower one. It is a type of accessory requirement for many markets such as Italian, English, German and the Arab Emirates. Smoke-tightness is part of the performance of the product standard for fire and smoke doors EN 16034. In Chemolli Fire we have carried out numerous smoke tightness tests.
A REALLY USEFUL GARRISON
We would like to stress that what saves the most lives in fires, besides prevention and training, is correct and precise exodus planning and safety management. It is well known that active and passive protection is used to give people time to escape and rescue workers time to intervene, but those who have done a fire test also know that a door subjected to a fire test will smoke and that more people die in fires as a result of smoke than they burn alive, so there should be more smoke doors than fire doors, but in reality, at present, it is exactly the opposite.
ALSO INTRODUCED IN ITALY WITH THE CODE
Recently the Italian legislator has also introduced the smoke tightness of doors and windows, with smoke filter E 30 Sa, and more and more will be required. The fire prevention code states in paragraph S.3 (compartmentalisation) that "The solutions conforming to performance level II shall be applied using smoke-proof elements (Sa) for the closure of compartment compartments (S.3.2).i.e., the designer is left the option to choose level III following a risk assessment, which provides that all closures between compartments and escape routes of the same activity should be at least seal of hot (E) and cold (Sa) fumes. (S.3.3) " Again in the code, in the S.4strategy, exodus, article S.4.7 defines that "The vertical escape routes must be protected by compartments with fire resistance determined according to chapter S.2 and in any case not lower than class 30 with closures of the communication openings at least E 30-Sa". This even if level IIof subdivision strategy S.3 applies. Furthermore, among the additional requirements, it is specified that for Rvita Cii1, Cii2, Ciii1, Ciii2, "all rooms where the occupants can sleep are compartmentalised with a class determined according to chapter S.2, in any case not less than 30and with communication compartment closures E 30-Sa". With this, E-Sa doors are always necessary in protected staircases.
FIRE MODELING
In fire modelling, the fundamental parameter is RSET, i.e. the time required for the exodus of the occupants. Smoke-proof doors "give" precious seconds to the exodus, so that it can take place more orderly also protecting the weaker categories.
THE TEST
The test must be carried out on the standardised support or on the associated support if the door is to be installed on the latter in practice. By testing on the flexible support, you have the extension to the rigid support but not vice versa. You start by making the support and installing the door as in practice on the test frame. Depending on how the test rig is structured, it may be that the test object is placed on a movable chassis (with a bridge crane) or directly on the test machine. SYSTEM LOSS Il laboratorio provvede a sigillare le fughe della porta da testare tipicamente con del nastro di alluminio. Il macchinario di prova viene messo in pressione a 10 e 25 Pascal e si rileva il dato della perdita di sistema a temperatura ambiente. ROOM TEMPERATURE TEST Once the sealings have been removed, excluding the threshold, the pressure is returned to 10 and 25 Pascaland it is verified that the leakage does not exceed 3 cubic metres per hour per linear metre of joint, clearly deducting the system leak from the instruments. The length of the joint has a positive effect on the calculation, but larger doors may be more bent (and therefore adhere worse to the seals on the frame). Similarly, double-leaf doors have a more favourable mathematical account, but the nature of the central joint typically leads to a greater loss and therefore passing the test is more critical. At this point the side of the door tested could be classified Sa. MEDIUM TEMPERATURE TEST, 200 DEGREES The hot tests are then carried out on that side. At this point, the threshold sealing is removed and the cold test cycle at 10, 25 Pa, and also at 50 Pa, is carried out again to check the tightness of the lower door area. This is because in the hot part, the threshold is tested. Therefore detecting a leak above or close to the limits when cold, can lead to the assumption that the hot test will give lower leakage values. The new limit, however, is 20 cubic metres per hour of lossfor single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour of lossfor double leaf doors, not related to the length of the joints. By heating the chamber at 200 ⁰Cfor 25 minutes, in addition to the heating time, deformation of the doors or supports, reduction in the length of the rubber gaskets and in rare cases minor alterations to the thermo-expanding gaskets can be triggered. WHAT IS THOUGHT TO HAPPEN, WHAT REALLY HAPPENS It is common opinion - gathered for example at training courses for designers - that thermal expansion seals are decisive for smoke tests. In our experience this is absolutely not true. The discriminating factor in these tests is the tightness of the rebate gaskets in relation to the deformation of the sash, and the tightness of the bottom gasket. Thermal expanding gaskets do not normally have time to ignite. The doors tend, as in the fire test, to move away from the edges of the frame. Wooden doors tend to shorten on the exposed side, iron doors tend to stretch. In both cases the high and low ends on the lock side are the most critical. In the hot test the leakage limit is no longer measured as in the cold test, but there is a general limit of 20 cubic metres per hour for single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour for double leaf doors, always net of system loss. At the end of the test, the sample is turned according to the rig test. Once the tests are complete the door could be classified, if all goes well, Sa and Sm (or S200).
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
02

Standard for Air Leakage Tests of Door Assemblies and Other Opening Protectives

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UL 1784

Clienti:

These requirements concern the inspection of air leaks through doors and other protective elements installed in openings where the air leakage must be checked.
THE TEST
UL 1784is a test that is very similar to the European test according to EN1634-3, where the heating is similar (400degrees fahrenheit is 204 degrees), but the temperature in the test chamber must be reached, instead of 30 minutes as indicated in the European test, in 15 minutes. Smoke-proof doors normally have the addition of an "S" in the definition (e.g. FD20S). This involves an additional test in addition to the UL10b/UL10cfire test.
LISTING
UL listedproducts can be found and searched in the UL database, IQ Prospectorhttps://iq.ulprospector.com/ The category for smoke-proof doors is OPBWLeakage-rated Door Assemblies UL is not the only laboratory that can perform ULtesting, but it is the only one that can include you in the UL IQ Prospector. There are also other bodies that can carry out a test according to the UL standard, they could include you in their own database (e.g. Intertek).
AFTER THE TEST?
If the test is successful, which is regular to us, ULproceeds with the Follow Up Service, FUS, as you can see in the specified section of the site. clicking here.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
03

Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for measuring smoke penetration through doorsets and shutter assemblies. Method of measurement under ambient temperature conditions

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: BS 476-31

Clienti:

With this English regulation, it is possible to carry out tests to evaluate the loss in cubic meters per hour per meter of joint length, with the exception of the lower one. It is an accessory requirement in many markets such as English, German and the United Arab Emirates.
THE TEST
The main difference with the European standard is the fact that in this standard the medium temperature loss, the equivalent of Sm-S200, is not evaluated.
REQUIREMENTS
Typically, the requirements for fire resistant doors for fire prevention are contained in the documents
  • Her Majesty’s Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B – Volume 1: Dwellings“;
  • Her Majesty’s Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B – Volume 2: Building other than dwellings“.
At the bottom of the page you will find the 2019 versions for use in England. In both, Appendix C refers to fire doors that can be classified according to EN13501 or BS 476-22. In the latter case, then they will be doors called FD (Fire door) and FD xx S, where xx is the duration in minutes, S is the smoke seal according to BS 476-31.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
01

Fire resistance and smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems, opening windows and their construction components - Part 3: Smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems.

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UNI EN 1634-3:2005

Clienti:

With this standard, tests can be carried out with medium temperature smokes at 200 °C (Sm) and cold smokes (Sa). The loss is estimated in cubic metres per hour per metre of joint length, except for the lower one. It is a type of accessory requirement for many markets such as Italian, English, German and the Arab Emirates. Smoke-tightness is part of the performance of the product standard for fire and smoke doors EN 16034. In Chemolli Fire we have carried out numerous smoke tightness tests.
A REALLY USEFUL GARRISON
We would like to stress that what saves the most lives in fires, besides prevention and training, is correct and precise exodus planning and safety management. It is well known that active and passive protection is used to give people time to escape and rescue workers time to intervene, but those who have done a fire test also know that a door subjected to a fire test will smoke and that more people die in fires as a result of smoke than they burn alive, so there should be more smoke doors than fire doors, but in reality, at present, it is exactly the opposite.
ALSO INTRODUCED IN ITALY WITH THE CODE
Recently the Italian legislator has also introduced the smoke tightness of doors and windows, with smoke filter E 30 Sa, and more and more will be required. The fire prevention code states in paragraph S.3 (compartmentalisation) that "The solutions conforming to performance level II shall be applied using smoke-proof elements (Sa) for the closure of compartment compartments (S.3.2).i.e., the designer is left the option to choose level III following a risk assessment, which provides that all closures between compartments and escape routes of the same activity should be at least seal of hot (E) and cold (Sa) fumes. (S.3.3) " Again in the code, in the S.4strategy, exodus, article S.4.7 defines that "The vertical escape routes must be protected by compartments with fire resistance determined according to chapter S.2 and in any case not lower than class 30 with closures of the communication openings at least E 30-Sa". This even if level IIof subdivision strategy S.3 applies. Furthermore, among the additional requirements, it is specified that for Rvita Cii1, Cii2, Ciii1, Ciii2, "all rooms where the occupants can sleep are compartmentalised with a class determined according to chapter S.2, in any case not less than 30and with communication compartment closures E 30-Sa". With this, E-Sa doors are always necessary in protected staircases.
FIRE MODELING
In fire modelling, the fundamental parameter is RSET, i.e. the time required for the exodus of the occupants. Smoke-proof doors "give" precious seconds to the exodus, so that it can take place more orderly also protecting the weaker categories.
THE TEST
The test must be carried out on the standardised support or on the associated support if the door is to be installed on the latter in practice. By testing on the flexible support, you have the extension to the rigid support but not vice versa. You start by making the support and installing the door as in practice on the test frame. Depending on how the test rig is structured, it may be that the test object is placed on a movable chassis (with a bridge crane) or directly on the test machine. SYSTEM LOSS Il laboratorio provvede a sigillare le fughe della porta da testare tipicamente con del nastro di alluminio. Il macchinario di prova viene messo in pressione a 10 e 25 Pascal e si rileva il dato della perdita di sistema a temperatura ambiente. ROOM TEMPERATURE TEST Once the sealings have been removed, excluding the threshold, the pressure is returned to 10 and 25 Pascaland it is verified that the leakage does not exceed 3 cubic metres per hour per linear metre of joint, clearly deducting the system leak from the instruments. The length of the joint has a positive effect on the calculation, but larger doors may be more bent (and therefore adhere worse to the seals on the frame). Similarly, double-leaf doors have a more favourable mathematical account, but the nature of the central joint typically leads to a greater loss and therefore passing the test is more critical. At this point the side of the door tested could be classified Sa. MEDIUM TEMPERATURE TEST, 200 DEGREES The hot tests are then carried out on that side. At this point, the threshold sealing is removed and the cold test cycle at 10, 25 Pa, and also at 50 Pa, is carried out again to check the tightness of the lower door area. This is because in the hot part, the threshold is tested. Therefore detecting a leak above or close to the limits when cold, can lead to the assumption that the hot test will give lower leakage values. The new limit, however, is 20 cubic metres per hour of lossfor single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour of lossfor double leaf doors, not related to the length of the joints. By heating the chamber at 200 ⁰Cfor 25 minutes, in addition to the heating time, deformation of the doors or supports, reduction in the length of the rubber gaskets and in rare cases minor alterations to the thermo-expanding gaskets can be triggered. WHAT IS THOUGHT TO HAPPEN, WHAT REALLY HAPPENS It is common opinion - gathered for example at training courses for designers - that thermal expansion seals are decisive for smoke tests. In our experience this is absolutely not true. The discriminating factor in these tests is the tightness of the rebate gaskets in relation to the deformation of the sash, and the tightness of the bottom gasket. Thermal expanding gaskets do not normally have time to ignite. The doors tend, as in the fire test, to move away from the edges of the frame. Wooden doors tend to shorten on the exposed side, iron doors tend to stretch. In both cases the high and low ends on the lock side are the most critical. In the hot test the leakage limit is no longer measured as in the cold test, but there is a general limit of 20 cubic metres per hour for single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour for double leaf doors, always net of system loss. At the end of the test, the sample is turned according to the rig test. Once the tests are complete the door could be classified, if all goes well, Sa and Sm (or S200).
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
02

Standard for Air Leakage Tests of Door Assemblies and Other Opening Protectives

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UL 1784

Clienti:

These requirements concern the inspection of air leaks through doors and other protective elements installed in openings where the air leakage must be checked.
THE TEST
UL 1784is a test that is very similar to the European test according to EN1634-3, where the heating is similar (400degrees fahrenheit is 204 degrees), but the temperature in the test chamber must be reached, instead of 30 minutes as indicated in the European test, in 15 minutes. Smoke-proof doors normally have the addition of an "S" in the definition (e.g. FD20S). This involves an additional test in addition to the UL10b/UL10cfire test.
LISTING
UL listedproducts can be found and searched in the UL database, IQ Prospectorhttps://iq.ulprospector.com/ The category for smoke-proof doors is OPBWLeakage-rated Door Assemblies UL is not the only laboratory that can perform ULtesting, but it is the only one that can include you in the UL IQ Prospector. There are also other bodies that can carry out a test according to the UL standard, they could include you in their own database (e.g. Intertek).
AFTER THE TEST?
If the test is successful, which is regular to us, ULproceeds with the Follow Up Service, FUS, as you can see in the specified section of the site. clicking here.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
03

Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for measuring smoke penetration through doorsets and shutter assemblies. Method of measurement under ambient temperature conditions

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: BS 476-31

Clienti:

With this English regulation, it is possible to carry out tests to evaluate the loss in cubic meters per hour per meter of joint length, with the exception of the lower one. It is an accessory requirement in many markets such as English, German and the United Arab Emirates.
THE TEST
The main difference with the European standard is the fact that in this standard the medium temperature loss, the equivalent of Sm-S200, is not evaluated.
REQUIREMENTS
Typically, the requirements for fire resistant doors for fire prevention are contained in the documents
  • Her Majesty’s Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B – Volume 1: Dwellings“;
  • Her Majesty’s Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B – Volume 2: Building other than dwellings“.
At the bottom of the page you will find the 2019 versions for use in England. In both, Appendix C refers to fire doors that can be classified according to EN13501 or BS 476-22. In the latter case, then they will be doors called FD (Fire door) and FD xx S, where xx is the duration in minutes, S is the smoke seal according to BS 476-31.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH

Ask for information about testing
Smoke sealing

Ask for information about testing
Smoke sealing