01

Fire resistance and smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems, opening windows and their construction accessories - Part 1: Fire resistance tests for doors and locking systems and opening windows

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UNI EN 1634-1:2018

Clienti:

When we talk about fire resistanceor reaction to fireduring a fire?
From the moment of ignition, which can hatch in a more or less long time, to the propagation of flames, we speak of reaction to fire. In this phase the behaviour of the materials, which "burn little", do not drip, smoke little, is decisive in order to prevent the fire from developing and spreading and to allow an exodus as orderly and long as possible. If we think for example about the fire reaction of wood, according to EN13501it is D S2 d0. This acronym means that exposed to fire burns (D is a class from A to F, in ascending order of class), smokes (S goes from 1 to 3, always in ascending order), and does not drip (d goes from 0 to 2). The exodus takes place in this phase, where it is crucial to choose the right strategies, such as materials with a good reaction to fire, smoke-proof doors to facilitate the exodus, orderly escape routes and fire-fighting equipment. Then (we are talking about 5 minutes after the spread of the flames, not two hours...) we arrive at the so-called "Flashover". It is generally defined as the transition to a fully developed fire in which all combustible materials in the compartment are involved in the fire mainly due to radiation from the products of combustion. From then on, laboratory tests simulate fire resistance, generally the ability to prevent fire from spreading from one compartment to another.
R, E, I
Fire doors are the main elements of compartmentalisation, all the more so as they have to perform multiple functions. They are fire resistant. In most of the sites created with copy-paste, we find the fabulous definition R.E.I., Resistance Hermeticity Isolation. Something epic, like libertè, fraternitè, egalitè. Jokes aside, this definition was, in Italy, the one that preceded the introduction in 2004 of EN1634-1, the European standard with which doors are tested. In the European system, Ris the load-bearing capacity, for example, in a wall, the capacity to support a load despite fire for the specified time (e.g., R120, or REI120, would be the capacity of a fire septum for 120 minutes). Does not apply to doors. In Italy it is not wrong to define an EI 120 door, as REI 120today, since article 1, paragraph 4 of the Ministerial Decree of 21.06.2004states that an EI2 120door is equivalent to a REI 120door according to the old national regulations. It is only obsolete!
TEST
Fire doors are tested with EN1634-1. Theoretically, internal doors could still be tested with UNI 9723. For both tests a "normalised fire" is simulated, with the heating curve of the furnace according to ISO 834. Within the test are evaluated (by clicking here you go to a video where from 8:50 I talk about this): Integrity – E
  • breakages or openings of a certain size: the E will fail if through holes are created, apart from the threshold, with a diameter equal to or greater than 25 mm(25 mm gauge) or if it is possible to insert a 6 mmgauge in a through hole and slide it linearly for 150 mm in two directionswithout damaging the seals;
  • ignition of a cotton pad - cotton ball;
  • persistent flame (more than 10 seconds) in the unexposed part.
Thermal insulation - I
  • On two levels, with suffixes 1 and 2 (2 for the additional procedure). The thermal insulation has central thermocouples to the panel that must respect an average temperature difference of 140degrees centigrade, the other thermocouples must not exceed 180degrees centigrade. The frames have a temperature difference limit of 180degrees for wooden framesand 360for metalframes. On the panel, the thermocouples placed 100 mm from the edgeare those of the I2. In the European standard an "additional procedure" is determined, where at the request of the "sponsor", thermocouples can be applied at 25 mmfrom the door edge to determine the I1seal. Clearly being closer to the edge, it is more difficult to comply with this parameter. The I1 sealing is required, for example, in the Netherlands.
CLASSIFICATION
After the test, the door is classified according to EN13501-2. Here is an example of classification EI1 90, EI2 120, E180 It means that the door has maintained integrity up to 180minutes, the I2 up to 120, the I1 up to 90 minutes.
SIZES
The dimensional extensions depend on the test result. If I test a 30-minute door and make it to 31 minutes, the maximum measurement I can produce will be that tested. If, on the other hand, I make it to 36 minutes, I obtain a 15% extension of the linear measurements with a limit of 20% in areafor hinged doors. This means that if I test a 1000x2000 port, to do the simple math, with 31 minutes I make that size at most, with 36 I make 1150x2300 at maximum. In reality I will never be able to do this measure because I am within the limit of 20% area. In fact, the area of the sample would be 2 square meters, consequently the maximum area of 2.4 square meters. So I can do at most, for example, 1150x2050 or 1040x2300, which are below the 20% increase in area. For sliding doors, the allowed increase is 50% of linear measurements. The famous 6 minutes we were talking about earlier are defined as "extratime" or "overrun", as follows: 30 minutes -> 36 60 minutes -> 68 120 minutes -> 132
FINISHINGS AND COMPONENTS
In general, paints can be applied, thickness increases with limits. Some of the variants are included in the direct field of application(wooden doors, thickness increase for material identity, application on the faces of laminates and ornamental veneers up to 1.5 mm thick). Also with regard to construction components such as locks, hinges, handles and door closers, there are components that need testing, others could be replaced. In general all changes not included in the direct field of applicationof the results should be searched in the extended field of applicationof the results, going to complete an EXAP, of which you can find more information in the dedicated section of the site.
GLAZINGS
If you test a glazing with a reduced size, the door can also be made without it. If the size is large, the door is referred to as glazed and can only be produced with glazing.
ACOUSTIC.
Very often noise reduction is also required. To find out what tests the doors are subjected to, visit the PHONOISOLATION section of our website.
SMOKE TIGHTNESS
Smoke-tightness is becoming more and more required, which is tested with EN1634-3. To find out what tests the doors are subjected to, please visit the SMOKE THIGHTNESS section of our website.
OPENING SIDES TO BE TESTED
In door tests both sides are normally tested, opening towards the furnace and opening from the opposite side of the furnace. There are some cases - very particular in truth - where according to some paragraphs of the standard it is possible to test only one side. We are talking about wooden leaf doors and wooden frame, symmetrical in their composition where all the hardware elements have already been tested and evidence is available. Failing this, the door could be described as "one-way" and therefore suitable for fire on one side only (an obvious limitation). Most of the available furnaces are 3x3 meters, generally in a test you can try either two doors with one leaf in double exposure, or one door with two leaves on one of the two sides to be tested.
TRANSITION FROM DOUBLE-LEAF DOORS TO SINGLE-LEAF DOORS
In the European test, the changeover from two-leaf to one leaf door is only possible - under certain conditions - by means of an EXAP(see here for details), whereas under the approval regime this is permitted in accordance with DM 21.06.2004, Annex C, paragraphs 1a, 1b.
MASONRY WALLS, PLASTERBOARD OR ASSOCIATED SUPPORTS
The supports (walls) on which the element is tested are also important. The standard contains so-called standardisedsupports, i.e. defined in the standard(specifically, in EN 1363-1:2012). The supports provided are divided into two categories: rigid and flexible. By rigid, we mean the masonry, by flexible, the plasterboard wall. If tested on a non-standardised support, such as an X-lam wall, this will be intended as an "associated support structure" and therefore that door can only be mounted on that support.. If I test on a standardisedrigid or flexiblesupport wooden leaf doors and wooden frame, I can switch from a rigid to a flexible support. If I test on a standardised flexible support wooden leaf doors with metal frame, I can switch from a rigid support, but not vice versa. Metal doors need to be tested both on a rigid support and on a standardised support (there are two tests). That is why when we buy a metal door, it has a different "certificate" if it is for masonry or plasterboard.
WHAT IS REQUIRED IN FIRE PREVENTION
Generally a receptive structure is developed around a staircase leading to the floors, the master room, if there is one, is an EI60with one leaf, the doors leading to the staircase are two-leaf with EI60handle, the doors of the roomsare EI30, the door of the storage room is EI60. As for the opening side, the doors of the rooms open towards the inside of the room, the storage room door outside.
WHAT THE MARKET REQUIRES
Customisation, large sizes, flush doors, flush doors, doors that combine fire resistance with soundproofing.
WHAT TO TEST
In light of the above, there is no right and wrong. To do well, it would be necessary to do 10 tests, then you have to enter into the merits of the individual company and understand what are the identity values, the production lines, the markets on which to place oneself. Once you have analysed the existing products, you can get an idea and think that testing everything is perhaps too much, but in the meantime start with the types that allow you to enter the market and create a position to develop later.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE OVER THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management. The test results can then be used for approvals, CE markings, Exapor other practices found on the site.
IN DEPTH
02

Fire resistance and smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems, opening windows and their construction components - Part 3: Smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems.

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UNI EN 1634-3:2005

Clienti:

With this standard, tests can be carried out with medium temperature smokes at 200 °C (Sm) and cold smokes (Sa). The loss is estimated in cubic metres per hour per metre of joint length, except for the lower one. It is a type of accessory requirement for many markets such as Italian, English, German and the Arab Emirates. Smoke-tightness is part of the performance of the product standard for fire and smoke doors EN 16034. In Chemolli Fire we have carried out numerous smoke tightness tests.
A REALLY USEFUL GARRISON
We would like to stress that what saves the most lives in fires, besides prevention and training, is correct and precise exodus planning and safety management. It is well known that active and passive protection is used to give people time to escape and rescue workers time to intervene, but those who have done a fire test also know that a door subjected to a fire test will smoke and that more people die in fires as a result of smoke than they burn alive, so there should be more smoke doors than fire doors, but in reality, at present, it is exactly the opposite.
ALSO INTRODUCED IN ITALY WITH THE CODE
Recently the Italian legislator has also introduced the smoke tightness of doors and windows, with smoke filter E 30 Sa, and more and more will be required. The fire prevention code states in paragraph S.3 (compartmentalisation) that "The solutions conforming to performance level II shall be applied using smoke-proof elements (Sa) for the closure of compartment compartments (S.3.2).i.e., the designer is left the option to choose level III following a risk assessment, which provides that all closures between compartments and escape routes of the same activity should be at least seal of hot (E) and cold (Sa) fumes. (S.3.3) " Again in the code, in the S.4strategy, exodus, article S.4.7 defines that "The vertical escape routes must be protected by compartments with fire resistance determined according to chapter S.2 and in any case not lower than class 30 with closures of the communication openings at least E 30-Sa". This even if level IIof subdivision strategy S.3 applies. Furthermore, among the additional requirements, it is specified that for Rvita Cii1, Cii2, Ciii1, Ciii2, "all rooms where the occupants can sleep are compartmentalised with a class determined according to chapter S.2, in any case not less than 30and with communication compartment closures E 30-Sa". With this, E-Sa doors are always necessary in protected staircases.
FIRE MODELING
In fire modelling, the fundamental parameter is RSET, i.e. the time required for the exodus of the occupants. Smoke-proof doors "give" precious seconds to the exodus, so that it can take place more orderly also protecting the weaker categories.
THE TEST
The test must be carried out on the standardised support or on the associated support if the door is to be installed on the latter in practice. By testing on the flexible support, you have the extension to the rigid support but not vice versa. You start by making the support and installing the door as in practice on the test frame. Depending on how the test rig is structured, it may be that the test object is placed on a movable chassis (with a bridge crane) or directly on the test machine. SYSTEM LOSS Il laboratorio provvede a sigillare le fughe della porta da testare tipicamente con del nastro di alluminio. Il macchinario di prova viene messo in pressione a 10 e 25 Pascal e si rileva il dato della perdita di sistema a temperatura ambiente. ROOM TEMPERATURE TEST Once the sealings have been removed, excluding the threshold, the pressure is returned to 10 and 25 Pascaland it is verified that the leakage does not exceed 3 cubic metres per hour per linear metre of joint, clearly deducting the system leak from the instruments. The length of the joint has a positive effect on the calculation, but larger doors may be more bent (and therefore adhere worse to the seals on the frame). Similarly, double-leaf doors have a more favourable mathematical account, but the nature of the central joint typically leads to a greater loss and therefore passing the test is more critical. At this point the side of the door tested could be classified Sa. MEDIUM TEMPERATURE TEST, 200 DEGREES The hot tests are then carried out on that side. At this point, the threshold sealing is removed and the cold test cycle at 10, 25 Pa, and also at 50 Pa, is carried out again to check the tightness of the lower door area. This is because in the hot part, the threshold is tested. Therefore detecting a leak above or close to the limits when cold, can lead to the assumption that the hot test will give lower leakage values. The new limit, however, is 20 cubic metres per hour of lossfor single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour of lossfor double leaf doors, not related to the length of the joints. By heating the chamber at 200 ⁰Cfor 25 minutes, in addition to the heating time, deformation of the doors or supports, reduction in the length of the rubber gaskets and in rare cases minor alterations to the thermo-expanding gaskets can be triggered. WHAT IS THOUGHT TO HAPPEN, WHAT REALLY HAPPENS It is common opinion - gathered for example at training courses for designers - that thermal expansion seals are decisive for smoke tests. In our experience this is absolutely not true. The discriminating factor in these tests is the tightness of the rebate gaskets in relation to the deformation of the sash, and the tightness of the bottom gasket. Thermal expanding gaskets do not normally have time to ignite. The doors tend, as in the fire test, to move away from the edges of the frame. Wooden doors tend to shorten on the exposed side, iron doors tend to stretch. In both cases the high and low ends on the lock side are the most critical. In the hot test the leakage limit is no longer measured as in the cold test, but there is a general limit of 20 cubic metres per hour for single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour for double leaf doors, always net of system loss. At the end of the test, the sample is turned according to the rig test. Once the tests are complete the door could be classified, if all goes well, Sa and Sm (or S200).
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
03

Extended application of the results of fire resistance and/or smoke dispersion control tests for doors, locking systems and opening windows and their construction components

Tipo: Extended application

Standard: UNI EN 15269

Clienti:

This family of standards, which is quite numerous, gives indications on how products can (or cannot) be modified after the test beyond the scope stated in the test standard.
DIRECT FIELD OF APPLICATION
Some modifications automatically allowed to the manufacturer, are those inserted in the DIRAP, the direct field of application of the results, inserted in the test standard and normally included in the product classification reports. For example, the reduction (or possible increase) of measures, the increase in thickness, the eventual possibility of changing from a flexible support (plasterboard) to a rigid one (masonry). All these variants, listed just to give an idea, can be linked to specific parameters related to the component materials rather than to the test results themselves. As an example, a wooden door tested on masonry can be installed on plasterboard and vice versa, a metal door needs two separate tests, and so on. However, these changes do not affect the construction components, such as locks, hinges and much more.
But how can a door manufacturer change locks or hinges?
Sure, just make another test. But the test is time-consuming and expensive and it must be considered that doors can have many variations required. The standardiser has therefore introduced some very important tools to manage the possibility of making variants without carrying out a new test. In the European standards system there is the EN15269family of standards which deals with the extended application of test results for fire resistant and smoke-proof doors.
STANDARDS
The main standards are: - EN 15269-1 general requirements; - EN 15269-2 steel doors; - EN 15269-3 wooden doors; - EN 15269-7 sliding doors; - EN 15269-20 smoke-tight doors. The standards prEN17020-1, prEN17020-2, prEN17020-3, prEN17020-4are being studied with regard to the durabilitycharacteristic. The EN15269family of standards contains, diversified by areas (fire and smoke), materials (wood or metal) and types (sliding or swinging) a series of rules that allow changes to be made with respect to the tested sample.
THE PROCEDURE
Generally speaking, a door manufacturer for a modification of materials or geometries, proposes the modification to the laboratory that tested the door, possibly adding further test evidence required by EXAP. In case of presence of more than one test report, in accredited laboratories, it is the manufacturer's faculty to choose indifferently one of the test laboratories that issued the reports that will be used as supporting evidence in the EXAPto study and issue the extension and consequently to draw up the extended classification report, as specified in point 5.3.1 of EN15725. This allows for product modifications that also include the interchangeability of construction components in the area of fire and smoke-proof doors.
HPS
When drafting EXAPs, the HPS - Hardware Performance Sheet, drawn up in accordance with EN16035, can be very useful. It can be useful precisely to give the laboratory that will make the EXAP the possibility to choose only the test evidence useful for that specific work. The HPS is a tool reserved for construction components, what we commonly call accessories, such as hinges, locks, door closers, etc... In CHEMOLLI FIREwe have assisted several clients to request rather complex EXAP, probably otherwise impossible, thanks to the following factors:
  • familiarity with the material;
  • an extensive database of previous evidence in which to identify useful evidence;
  • within this, about thirty evidence in our name to draw from;
  • a network of contacts with which to attempt to obtain authorisation to use such evidence.
IN DEPTH
04

Fire classification of construction products and building elements

Tipo: General standard

Standard: UNI EN 13501

Clienti:

It is the general standard that mainly reports the various classes and performances that can be obtained from fire resistance test products. EN13501-1, concerns classification using fire reactiontest data. EN13501-3, concerns the classification on products and elements of service installations, such as ducts and fire dampers. EN13501-4, concerns the classification for tests on smoke controlcomponents. EN13501-5, concerns the classification for external fire exposure for roofs. In particular, the standard that is most relevant to our operations is EN13501-2, in which loaded and unloaded elementsare considered with a separation function (or not), with or without glazing. As an example:
  • walls;
  • floors;
  • roofs;
  • coloumns;
  • stairs;
  • ceilings;
  • protective coatings;
  • partitions;
  • façades;
  • fire doors and their components;
  • smoke control doors;
  • crossings;
  • and lift doors tested according to EN1634-1(other lift doors are tested according to EN81-58).
In particular, for doors defines: Integrity - E
  • breakages or openings of a certain size;
  • ignition of a cotton pad;
  • sustained flame on the non exposed side.
thermal insulation - I
  • The thermal insulation will be on two levels, with suffixes 1 and 2 (2 for the additional procedure).
Irradiance - W
  • The ability to maintain the maximum radiation value below 15 kW/sqm is evaluated.
Self closure - C
  • Self-closing is the ability of a door to close completely and to engage the scroungers, without human intervention.
Smoke tightness - S
  • Smoke-tightness at room temperature - Sa
  • Smoke resistance at room temperature and at 200 degrees - Sm (S200)
Other special elements have additional features:
  • M - mechanical action, impact resistance;
  • G - resistance to thermal attack for chimneys;
  • K - ability to protect against fire for a specified period (protective).
Load-bearing capacity - R Note that R is the load-bearing capacity, for example, in a wall, the capacity to support a load despite fire for the specified time (e.g., R120, or REI120, would be the capacity of a fire septum for 120 minutes). Does not apply to doors. This letter, was used in the old national standard, UNI9723, for doors, for the characteristics R.E.I. (Resistance Hermeticity Insulation). Let's say that in Italy it is not wrong to define an EI 120, as REI 120 door today, because article 1, paragraph 4 of the DM 21.06.2004states that an EI2 120 door is equivalent to a REI 120 door according to the old national regulations. It's just obsolete! Classes The classes are the duration in minutes, approximate by default, within these periods: E 15 20 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 EI1 15 20 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 EI2 15 20 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 EW 20 30 60 In general, the classification of an element is expressed by the following matrix:
R E I W t t - M S C IncSlow sn ef r
   
01

Fire resistance and smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems, opening windows and their construction accessories - Part 1: Fire resistance tests for doors and locking systems and opening windows

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UNI EN 1634-1:2018

Clienti:

When we talk about fire resistanceor reaction to fireduring a fire?
From the moment of ignition, which can hatch in a more or less long time, to the propagation of flames, we speak of reaction to fire. In this phase the behaviour of the materials, which "burn little", do not drip, smoke little, is decisive in order to prevent the fire from developing and spreading and to allow an exodus as orderly and long as possible. If we think for example about the fire reaction of wood, according to EN13501it is D S2 d0. This acronym means that exposed to fire burns (D is a class from A to F, in ascending order of class), smokes (S goes from 1 to 3, always in ascending order), and does not drip (d goes from 0 to 2). The exodus takes place in this phase, where it is crucial to choose the right strategies, such as materials with a good reaction to fire, smoke-proof doors to facilitate the exodus, orderly escape routes and fire-fighting equipment. Then (we are talking about 5 minutes after the spread of the flames, not two hours...) we arrive at the so-called "Flashover". It is generally defined as the transition to a fully developed fire in which all combustible materials in the compartment are involved in the fire mainly due to radiation from the products of combustion. From then on, laboratory tests simulate fire resistance, generally the ability to prevent fire from spreading from one compartment to another.
R, E, I
Fire doors are the main elements of compartmentalisation, all the more so as they have to perform multiple functions. They are fire resistant. In most of the sites created with copy-paste, we find the fabulous definition R.E.I., Resistance Hermeticity Isolation. Something epic, like libertè, fraternitè, egalitè. Jokes aside, this definition was, in Italy, the one that preceded the introduction in 2004 of EN1634-1, the European standard with which doors are tested. In the European system, Ris the load-bearing capacity, for example, in a wall, the capacity to support a load despite fire for the specified time (e.g., R120, or REI120, would be the capacity of a fire septum for 120 minutes). Does not apply to doors. In Italy it is not wrong to define an EI 120 door, as REI 120today, since article 1, paragraph 4 of the Ministerial Decree of 21.06.2004states that an EI2 120door is equivalent to a REI 120door according to the old national regulations. It is only obsolete!
TEST
Fire doors are tested with EN1634-1. Theoretically, internal doors could still be tested with UNI 9723. For both tests a "normalised fire" is simulated, with the heating curve of the furnace according to ISO 834. Within the test are evaluated (by clicking here you go to a video where from 8:50 I talk about this): Integrity – E
  • breakages or openings of a certain size: the E will fail if through holes are created, apart from the threshold, with a diameter equal to or greater than 25 mm(25 mm gauge) or if it is possible to insert a 6 mmgauge in a through hole and slide it linearly for 150 mm in two directionswithout damaging the seals;
  • ignition of a cotton pad - cotton ball;
  • persistent flame (more than 10 seconds) in the unexposed part.
Thermal insulation - I
  • On two levels, with suffixes 1 and 2 (2 for the additional procedure). The thermal insulation has central thermocouples to the panel that must respect an average temperature difference of 140degrees centigrade, the other thermocouples must not exceed 180degrees centigrade. The frames have a temperature difference limit of 180degrees for wooden framesand 360for metalframes. On the panel, the thermocouples placed 100 mm from the edgeare those of the I2. In the European standard an "additional procedure" is determined, where at the request of the "sponsor", thermocouples can be applied at 25 mmfrom the door edge to determine the I1seal. Clearly being closer to the edge, it is more difficult to comply with this parameter. The I1 sealing is required, for example, in the Netherlands.
CLASSIFICATION
After the test, the door is classified according to EN13501-2. Here is an example of classification EI1 90, EI2 120, E180 It means that the door has maintained integrity up to 180minutes, the I2 up to 120, the I1 up to 90 minutes.
SIZES
The dimensional extensions depend on the test result. If I test a 30-minute door and make it to 31 minutes, the maximum measurement I can produce will be that tested. If, on the other hand, I make it to 36 minutes, I obtain a 15% extension of the linear measurements with a limit of 20% in areafor hinged doors. This means that if I test a 1000x2000 port, to do the simple math, with 31 minutes I make that size at most, with 36 I make 1150x2300 at maximum. In reality I will never be able to do this measure because I am within the limit of 20% area. In fact, the area of the sample would be 2 square meters, consequently the maximum area of 2.4 square meters. So I can do at most, for example, 1150x2050 or 1040x2300, which are below the 20% increase in area. For sliding doors, the allowed increase is 50% of linear measurements. The famous 6 minutes we were talking about earlier are defined as "extratime" or "overrun", as follows: 30 minutes -> 36 60 minutes -> 68 120 minutes -> 132
FINISHINGS AND COMPONENTS
In general, paints can be applied, thickness increases with limits. Some of the variants are included in the direct field of application(wooden doors, thickness increase for material identity, application on the faces of laminates and ornamental veneers up to 1.5 mm thick). Also with regard to construction components such as locks, hinges, handles and door closers, there are components that need testing, others could be replaced. In general all changes not included in the direct field of applicationof the results should be searched in the extended field of applicationof the results, going to complete an EXAP, of which you can find more information in the dedicated section of the site.
GLAZINGS
If you test a glazing with a reduced size, the door can also be made without it. If the size is large, the door is referred to as glazed and can only be produced with glazing.
ACOUSTIC.
Very often noise reduction is also required. To find out what tests the doors are subjected to, visit the PHONOISOLATION section of our website.
SMOKE TIGHTNESS
Smoke-tightness is becoming more and more required, which is tested with EN1634-3. To find out what tests the doors are subjected to, please visit the SMOKE THIGHTNESS section of our website.
OPENING SIDES TO BE TESTED
In door tests both sides are normally tested, opening towards the furnace and opening from the opposite side of the furnace. There are some cases - very particular in truth - where according to some paragraphs of the standard it is possible to test only one side. We are talking about wooden leaf doors and wooden frame, symmetrical in their composition where all the hardware elements have already been tested and evidence is available. Failing this, the door could be described as "one-way" and therefore suitable for fire on one side only (an obvious limitation). Most of the available furnaces are 3x3 meters, generally in a test you can try either two doors with one leaf in double exposure, or one door with two leaves on one of the two sides to be tested.
TRANSITION FROM DOUBLE-LEAF DOORS TO SINGLE-LEAF DOORS
In the European test, the changeover from two-leaf to one leaf door is only possible - under certain conditions - by means of an EXAP(see here for details), whereas under the approval regime this is permitted in accordance with DM 21.06.2004, Annex C, paragraphs 1a, 1b.
MASONRY WALLS, PLASTERBOARD OR ASSOCIATED SUPPORTS
The supports (walls) on which the element is tested are also important. The standard contains so-called standardisedsupports, i.e. defined in the standard(specifically, in EN 1363-1:2012). The supports provided are divided into two categories: rigid and flexible. By rigid, we mean the masonry, by flexible, the plasterboard wall. If tested on a non-standardised support, such as an X-lam wall, this will be intended as an "associated support structure" and therefore that door can only be mounted on that support.. If I test on a standardisedrigid or flexiblesupport wooden leaf doors and wooden frame, I can switch from a rigid to a flexible support. If I test on a standardised flexible support wooden leaf doors with metal frame, I can switch from a rigid support, but not vice versa. Metal doors need to be tested both on a rigid support and on a standardised support (there are two tests). That is why when we buy a metal door, it has a different "certificate" if it is for masonry or plasterboard.
WHAT IS REQUIRED IN FIRE PREVENTION
Generally a receptive structure is developed around a staircase leading to the floors, the master room, if there is one, is an EI60with one leaf, the doors leading to the staircase are two-leaf with EI60handle, the doors of the roomsare EI30, the door of the storage room is EI60. As for the opening side, the doors of the rooms open towards the inside of the room, the storage room door outside.
WHAT THE MARKET REQUIRES
Customisation, large sizes, flush doors, flush doors, doors that combine fire resistance with soundproofing.
WHAT TO TEST
In light of the above, there is no right and wrong. To do well, it would be necessary to do 10 tests, then you have to enter into the merits of the individual company and understand what are the identity values, the production lines, the markets on which to place oneself. Once you have analysed the existing products, you can get an idea and think that testing everything is perhaps too much, but in the meantime start with the types that allow you to enter the market and create a position to develop later.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE OVER THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management. The test results can then be used for approvals, CE markings, Exapor other practices found on the site.
IN DEPTH
02

Fire resistance and smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems, opening windows and their construction components - Part 3: Smoke dispersion control tests for doors and locking systems.

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: UNI EN 1634-3:2005

Clienti:

With this standard, tests can be carried out with medium temperature smokes at 200 °C (Sm) and cold smokes (Sa). The loss is estimated in cubic metres per hour per metre of joint length, except for the lower one. It is a type of accessory requirement for many markets such as Italian, English, German and the Arab Emirates. Smoke-tightness is part of the performance of the product standard for fire and smoke doors EN 16034. In Chemolli Fire we have carried out numerous smoke tightness tests.
A REALLY USEFUL GARRISON
We would like to stress that what saves the most lives in fires, besides prevention and training, is correct and precise exodus planning and safety management. It is well known that active and passive protection is used to give people time to escape and rescue workers time to intervene, but those who have done a fire test also know that a door subjected to a fire test will smoke and that more people die in fires as a result of smoke than they burn alive, so there should be more smoke doors than fire doors, but in reality, at present, it is exactly the opposite.
ALSO INTRODUCED IN ITALY WITH THE CODE
Recently the Italian legislator has also introduced the smoke tightness of doors and windows, with smoke filter E 30 Sa, and more and more will be required. The fire prevention code states in paragraph S.3 (compartmentalisation) that "The solutions conforming to performance level II shall be applied using smoke-proof elements (Sa) for the closure of compartment compartments (S.3.2).i.e., the designer is left the option to choose level III following a risk assessment, which provides that all closures between compartments and escape routes of the same activity should be at least seal of hot (E) and cold (Sa) fumes. (S.3.3) " Again in the code, in the S.4strategy, exodus, article S.4.7 defines that "The vertical escape routes must be protected by compartments with fire resistance determined according to chapter S.2 and in any case not lower than class 30 with closures of the communication openings at least E 30-Sa". This even if level IIof subdivision strategy S.3 applies. Furthermore, among the additional requirements, it is specified that for Rvita Cii1, Cii2, Ciii1, Ciii2, "all rooms where the occupants can sleep are compartmentalised with a class determined according to chapter S.2, in any case not less than 30and with communication compartment closures E 30-Sa". With this, E-Sa doors are always necessary in protected staircases.
FIRE MODELING
In fire modelling, the fundamental parameter is RSET, i.e. the time required for the exodus of the occupants. Smoke-proof doors "give" precious seconds to the exodus, so that it can take place more orderly also protecting the weaker categories.
THE TEST
The test must be carried out on the standardised support or on the associated support if the door is to be installed on the latter in practice. By testing on the flexible support, you have the extension to the rigid support but not vice versa. You start by making the support and installing the door as in practice on the test frame. Depending on how the test rig is structured, it may be that the test object is placed on a movable chassis (with a bridge crane) or directly on the test machine. SYSTEM LOSS Il laboratorio provvede a sigillare le fughe della porta da testare tipicamente con del nastro di alluminio. Il macchinario di prova viene messo in pressione a 10 e 25 Pascal e si rileva il dato della perdita di sistema a temperatura ambiente. ROOM TEMPERATURE TEST Once the sealings have been removed, excluding the threshold, the pressure is returned to 10 and 25 Pascaland it is verified that the leakage does not exceed 3 cubic metres per hour per linear metre of joint, clearly deducting the system leak from the instruments. The length of the joint has a positive effect on the calculation, but larger doors may be more bent (and therefore adhere worse to the seals on the frame). Similarly, double-leaf doors have a more favourable mathematical account, but the nature of the central joint typically leads to a greater loss and therefore passing the test is more critical. At this point the side of the door tested could be classified Sa. MEDIUM TEMPERATURE TEST, 200 DEGREES The hot tests are then carried out on that side. At this point, the threshold sealing is removed and the cold test cycle at 10, 25 Pa, and also at 50 Pa, is carried out again to check the tightness of the lower door area. This is because in the hot part, the threshold is tested. Therefore detecting a leak above or close to the limits when cold, can lead to the assumption that the hot test will give lower leakage values. The new limit, however, is 20 cubic metres per hour of lossfor single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour of lossfor double leaf doors, not related to the length of the joints. By heating the chamber at 200 ⁰Cfor 25 minutes, in addition to the heating time, deformation of the doors or supports, reduction in the length of the rubber gaskets and in rare cases minor alterations to the thermo-expanding gaskets can be triggered. WHAT IS THOUGHT TO HAPPEN, WHAT REALLY HAPPENS It is common opinion - gathered for example at training courses for designers - that thermal expansion seals are decisive for smoke tests. In our experience this is absolutely not true. The discriminating factor in these tests is the tightness of the rebate gaskets in relation to the deformation of the sash, and the tightness of the bottom gasket. Thermal expanding gaskets do not normally have time to ignite. The doors tend, as in the fire test, to move away from the edges of the frame. Wooden doors tend to shorten on the exposed side, iron doors tend to stretch. In both cases the high and low ends on the lock side are the most critical. In the hot test the leakage limit is no longer measured as in the cold test, but there is a general limit of 20 cubic metres per hour for single leaf doors and 30 cubic metres per hour for double leaf doors, always net of system loss. At the end of the test, the sample is turned according to the rig test. Once the tests are complete the door could be classified, if all goes well, Sa and Sm (or S200).
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
03

Extended application of the results of fire resistance and/or smoke dispersion control tests for doors, locking systems and opening windows and their construction components

Tipo: Extended application

Standard: UNI EN 15269

Clienti:

This family of standards, which is quite numerous, gives indications on how products can (or cannot) be modified after the test beyond the scope stated in the test standard.
DIRECT FIELD OF APPLICATION
Some modifications automatically allowed to the manufacturer, are those inserted in the DIRAP, the direct field of application of the results, inserted in the test standard and normally included in the product classification reports. For example, the reduction (or possible increase) of measures, the increase in thickness, the eventual possibility of changing from a flexible support (plasterboard) to a rigid one (masonry). All these variants, listed just to give an idea, can be linked to specific parameters related to the component materials rather than to the test results themselves. As an example, a wooden door tested on masonry can be installed on plasterboard and vice versa, a metal door needs two separate tests, and so on. However, these changes do not affect the construction components, such as locks, hinges and much more.
But how can a door manufacturer change locks or hinges?
Sure, just make another test. But the test is time-consuming and expensive and it must be considered that doors can have many variations required. The standardiser has therefore introduced some very important tools to manage the possibility of making variants without carrying out a new test. In the European standards system there is the EN15269family of standards which deals with the extended application of test results for fire resistant and smoke-proof doors.
STANDARDS
The main standards are: - EN 15269-1 general requirements; - EN 15269-2 steel doors; - EN 15269-3 wooden doors; - EN 15269-7 sliding doors; - EN 15269-20 smoke-tight doors. The standards prEN17020-1, prEN17020-2, prEN17020-3, prEN17020-4are being studied with regard to the durabilitycharacteristic. The EN15269family of standards contains, diversified by areas (fire and smoke), materials (wood or metal) and types (sliding or swinging) a series of rules that allow changes to be made with respect to the tested sample.
THE PROCEDURE
Generally speaking, a door manufacturer for a modification of materials or geometries, proposes the modification to the laboratory that tested the door, possibly adding further test evidence required by EXAP. In case of presence of more than one test report, in accredited laboratories, it is the manufacturer's faculty to choose indifferently one of the test laboratories that issued the reports that will be used as supporting evidence in the EXAPto study and issue the extension and consequently to draw up the extended classification report, as specified in point 5.3.1 of EN15725. This allows for product modifications that also include the interchangeability of construction components in the area of fire and smoke-proof doors.
HPS
When drafting EXAPs, the HPS - Hardware Performance Sheet, drawn up in accordance with EN16035, can be very useful. It can be useful precisely to give the laboratory that will make the EXAP the possibility to choose only the test evidence useful for that specific work. The HPS is a tool reserved for construction components, what we commonly call accessories, such as hinges, locks, door closers, etc... In CHEMOLLI FIREwe have assisted several clients to request rather complex EXAP, probably otherwise impossible, thanks to the following factors:
  • familiarity with the material;
  • an extensive database of previous evidence in which to identify useful evidence;
  • within this, about thirty evidence in our name to draw from;
  • a network of contacts with which to attempt to obtain authorisation to use such evidence.
IN DEPTH
04

Fire classification of construction products and building elements

Tipo: General standard

Standard: UNI EN 13501

Clienti:

It is the general standard that mainly reports the various classes and performances that can be obtained from fire resistance test products. EN13501-1, concerns classification using fire reactiontest data. EN13501-3, concerns the classification on products and elements of service installations, such as ducts and fire dampers. EN13501-4, concerns the classification for tests on smoke controlcomponents. EN13501-5, concerns the classification for external fire exposure for roofs. In particular, the standard that is most relevant to our operations is EN13501-2, in which loaded and unloaded elementsare considered with a separation function (or not), with or without glazing. As an example:
  • walls;
  • floors;
  • roofs;
  • coloumns;
  • stairs;
  • ceilings;
  • protective coatings;
  • partitions;
  • façades;
  • fire doors and their components;
  • smoke control doors;
  • crossings;
  • and lift doors tested according to EN1634-1(other lift doors are tested according to EN81-58).
In particular, for doors defines: Integrity - E
  • breakages or openings of a certain size;
  • ignition of a cotton pad;
  • sustained flame on the non exposed side.
thermal insulation - I
  • The thermal insulation will be on two levels, with suffixes 1 and 2 (2 for the additional procedure).
Irradiance - W
  • The ability to maintain the maximum radiation value below 15 kW/sqm is evaluated.
Self closure - C
  • Self-closing is the ability of a door to close completely and to engage the scroungers, without human intervention.
Smoke tightness - S
  • Smoke-tightness at room temperature - Sa
  • Smoke resistance at room temperature and at 200 degrees - Sm (S200)
Other special elements have additional features:
  • M - mechanical action, impact resistance;
  • G - resistance to thermal attack for chimneys;
  • K - ability to protect against fire for a specified period (protective).
Load-bearing capacity - R Note that R is the load-bearing capacity, for example, in a wall, the capacity to support a load despite fire for the specified time (e.g., R120, or REI120, would be the capacity of a fire septum for 120 minutes). Does not apply to doors. This letter, was used in the old national standard, UNI9723, for doors, for the characteristics R.E.I. (Resistance Hermeticity Insulation). Let's say that in Italy it is not wrong to define an EI 120, as REI 120 door today, because article 1, paragraph 4 of the DM 21.06.2004states that an EI2 120 door is equivalent to a REI 120 door according to the old national regulations. It's just obsolete! Classes The classes are the duration in minutes, approximate by default, within these periods: E 15 20 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 EI1 15 20 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 EI2 15 20 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 EW 20 30 60 In general, the classification of an element is expressed by the following matrix:
R E I W t t - M S C IncSlow sn ef r
   

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Doors fire resistance

Ask for information about testing
Doors fire resistance