BS - British Standard Fire resistance

Fire Tests on Building materials and structures – Part 22: Methods for determination of the fire resistance of non-loadbearing elements of construction

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: BS 476-22

Clienti:

National testing standard for the United Kingdom, regarding non-load-bearing elements such as doors. It is an "ancient" standard, from 1987.
REQUIREMENTS
Typically, the requirements for fire resistant doors for fire prevention are contained in the documents
  • "Her Majesty's Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B - Volume 1: Dwellings";
  • "Her Majesty's Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B - Volume 2: Building other than dwellings".
At the bottom of the page you will find the 2019 versions for use in England. In both, in the Appendix C we talk about fire doors that can be classified according to EN13501 or according to BS 476-22. In the latter case, then they will be doors called FD(Fire door) and FD xx S, where xx is the duration in minutes, S is the smoke seal according to BS 476-31.
ASSESSMENT, EXTENSION OF EUROPEAN RESULTS
Normally to market products in the UK a document called Assessment is needed, which can be drawn up to say that doors tested for example in Italy according to EN1634-1 can also be defined according to BS EN 1634-1, or according to BS476-22. As a curiosity, in some cases the BS476-22 is even more stringent than the EN1634-1. We have had the case of an EI2 60 door, which we had to classify according to BS EN1634-1 and not according to BS476-22, as a thermocouple of the additional procedure had exceeded 180 degrees. In BS476-22, it is specified that any thermocouple that exceeds 180 degrees causes the test to fail, while in the European one it was just something more.
ASSESSMENT, EXTENSION OF THE FIELD OF APPLICATION
The Assessment may also contain extensions with respect to the field of application of the results, in some cases very similar to EXAP. Previously, highly imaginative Global Assessments were circulating, following the Grenfell and the Composite doors scandal, the meters of judgment were very narrow, getting closer and closer to the rigor of the European standard.
VALIDITY AND RENEWAL
The Assessment is a document that normally has a validity of 5 years. In Chemolli Fire we have both carried out tests directly in the UK and have recognized tests carried out in Italy, as well as renewed documents and agreed with the laboratory that they provided for extensions with respect to the field of application of the existing results.
THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION
In the UK there are several voluntary quality brands, the so-called "Third party certification", such as BM Trada, Certifire, and others. These, although not mandatory, are often referred to in the tender documents thus becoming mandatory.
ENGLISH CE MARKING: UKCA
It is not a group dance, but it is the English proposal for CE marking, national. Over time you will see how much it will hold.
A FLUID SITUATION
The situation we report is a very fluid and evolving - geopolitical - one. We remind you that with Dec 1st 2020, BREXIT will end, with or without agreements, therefore we do not know if what we photograph here will remain valid and for how long. We can hypothesize a boost to the use of BS476 standards compared to EN1634, a tightening on the possibilities of Assessments, a greater request for Third Party Certification and, last but not least, for UKCA.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BS476-22 AND EN1634-1
Ragioniamo sulla BS476-22 in riferimento alla EN1634-1, andando ad identificare le differenze primarie tra gli standard di prova. BS476-22: 1987 and BS EN 1634-1, although conceived independently, have many similarities in that they share a common reference document. ISO 834defines the cellulosic fire curve, providing the common ground for many national fire resistance test methods for doors within the European Union. The new European test method meets the functional requirements of all EU Member States and introduces new methodologies to "harmonize" the potentially different behaviors of existing fire test furnaces. The changes introduced in the new standard include the specifications of the wall covering of the fire test furnace and the oxygen level present during the tests. However, three modifications have been shown to significantly affect the performance of the doors under test. These are:
  • temperature control and monitoring devices
  • pressure regime of the furnace during the test
  • requirement for the cycle of the doors before the execution of the fire test
Temperature control and measurement devices Both test methods require that the furnace atmosphere temperature is monitored during the test. This allows you to control the temperature according to the time / temperature curve specified in the relevant standard. The temperature inside the furnace is measured by "type K" thermocouples. BS 476-22 requires the use of a 1.5 mm probe thermocouple while BS EN 1634-1 requires the use of the "plate thermocouple". Physical differences between measuring devices result in significant differences in their response to temperature increases. The 1.5 mm probe type thermocouple (BS) has a very small mass which responds directly to changes in gas temperature - very low thermal inertia, i.e. a very rapid response. The plate thermocouple device (BS EN) uses a 1 mm thermocouple to monitor the temperature of a steel plate that has been heated by the furnace gases. It takes much more heat to heat the steel plate than to heat the 1.5mm probe tip. As a result, the plate thermocouple is said to have higher thermal inertia and consequently a slower initial response rate. In short, it's like having a car odometer with a weighted pointer: since gas is put in the furnace to create heat with the flames, having a faster instrument to read the temperature, I will put less gas. How can this difference affect the test? In the first ten minutes of the BS EN test, the furnace actually operates between 10 and 34% more than the equivalent test performed according to a BS 476-22 standard. This ten minute period is the time taken to overcome the initial thermal inertia of the plate. After ten minutes the two devices read very similar temperatures. Furnace pressure regime The pressure regime inside the furnace is fundamental for the behavior of the door in question. The positive pressure inside the furnace pushes the hot gases out of the furnace chamber through any gaps in the sample. It is this effect that precipitates the need for thermo-expanding perimeter seals for doors. The difference between the two standards lies in the height at which the neutral axis is placed, i.e. where it passes from positive to negative pressure inside the furnace. The transition point is at a differential pressure of 0 Pa and is known as a plane or axis of neutral pressure. In BS 476-22 this is set at 1 m above the threshold, in BS EN 1634-1 the value is set at 500 mm above the threshold. This involves a different pressure trend with repercussions in the behavior of the sample gaskets. Our experience Considering 20 or 30 minute doors, if the test is 30% easier, you could make doors that cost 30% less. This is not the case, because the fire doors do not size like the ounces of ham at the delicatessen counter. Better to leave a few more slices. Moving forward with the minutes, this difference thins. These considerations obviously do not apply to tests in which plate thermocouples or combined EN + BS tests are used, where the more restrictive parameters would be applied. Exposed side The tests in BS 476-22 have often been carried out on one side only. After the "composite doors" scandal, we saw a race to test from two sides, also in compliance with the circular of the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government of July 31st 2018.
ARE THE TESTS MADE IN UK VALID IN ITALY?
If we are talking about CE marked doors, the marking allows marketing in the states of the Union. Check whether the mandatory characteristics for the recipient country are met and that the documentation is in the language of the country where they are marketed. For more information on marking, go to the CE MARKING section of our website. For unmarked doors, then they must have approval. Attention that the tests are accepted if the laboratory has certain characteristics and if it is part of the EEA market. Which with Brexit, could change for British laboratories. For more information on the approval, go to the APPROVAL section of our website. Clearly, approval can be requested under certain conditions, only if the test has been carried out in BS EN 1634-1 and not in BS 476-22.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
 

Fire Tests on Building materials and structures – Part 22: Methods for determination of the fire resistance of non-loadbearing elements of construction

Tipo: Test standard

Standard: BS 476-22

Clienti:

National testing standard for the United Kingdom, regarding non-load-bearing elements such as doors. It is an "ancient" standard, from 1987.
REQUIREMENTS
Typically, the requirements for fire resistant doors for fire prevention are contained in the documents
  • "Her Majesty's Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B - Volume 1: Dwellings";
  • "Her Majesty's Government, The building Regulations 2010, Fire safety, Approved document B - Volume 2: Building other than dwellings".
At the bottom of the page you will find the 2019 versions for use in England. In both, in the Appendix C we talk about fire doors that can be classified according to EN13501 or according to BS 476-22. In the latter case, then they will be doors called FD(Fire door) and FD xx S, where xx is the duration in minutes, S is the smoke seal according to BS 476-31.
ASSESSMENT, EXTENSION OF EUROPEAN RESULTS
Normally to market products in the UK a document called Assessment is needed, which can be drawn up to say that doors tested for example in Italy according to EN1634-1 can also be defined according to BS EN 1634-1, or according to BS476-22. As a curiosity, in some cases the BS476-22 is even more stringent than the EN1634-1. We have had the case of an EI2 60 door, which we had to classify according to BS EN1634-1 and not according to BS476-22, as a thermocouple of the additional procedure had exceeded 180 degrees. In BS476-22, it is specified that any thermocouple that exceeds 180 degrees causes the test to fail, while in the European one it was just something more.
ASSESSMENT, EXTENSION OF THE FIELD OF APPLICATION
The Assessment may also contain extensions with respect to the field of application of the results, in some cases very similar to EXAP. Previously, highly imaginative Global Assessments were circulating, following the Grenfell and the Composite doors scandal, the meters of judgment were very narrow, getting closer and closer to the rigor of the European standard.
VALIDITY AND RENEWAL
The Assessment is a document that normally has a validity of 5 years. In Chemolli Fire we have both carried out tests directly in the UK and have recognized tests carried out in Italy, as well as renewed documents and agreed with the laboratory that they provided for extensions with respect to the field of application of the existing results.
THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION
In the UK there are several voluntary quality brands, the so-called "Third party certification", such as BM Trada, Certifire, and others. These, although not mandatory, are often referred to in the tender documents thus becoming mandatory.
ENGLISH CE MARKING: UKCA
It is not a group dance, but it is the English proposal for CE marking, national. Over time you will see how much it will hold.
A FLUID SITUATION
The situation we report is a very fluid and evolving - geopolitical - one. We remind you that with Dec 1st 2020, BREXIT will end, with or without agreements, therefore we do not know if what we photograph here will remain valid and for how long. We can hypothesize a boost to the use of BS476 standards compared to EN1634, a tightening on the possibilities of Assessments, a greater request for Third Party Certification and, last but not least, for UKCA.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BS476-22 AND EN1634-1
Ragioniamo sulla BS476-22 in riferimento alla EN1634-1, andando ad identificare le differenze primarie tra gli standard di prova. BS476-22: 1987 and BS EN 1634-1, although conceived independently, have many similarities in that they share a common reference document. ISO 834defines the cellulosic fire curve, providing the common ground for many national fire resistance test methods for doors within the European Union. The new European test method meets the functional requirements of all EU Member States and introduces new methodologies to "harmonize" the potentially different behaviors of existing fire test furnaces. The changes introduced in the new standard include the specifications of the wall covering of the fire test furnace and the oxygen level present during the tests. However, three modifications have been shown to significantly affect the performance of the doors under test. These are:
  • temperature control and monitoring devices
  • pressure regime of the furnace during the test
  • requirement for the cycle of the doors before the execution of the fire test
Temperature control and measurement devices Both test methods require that the furnace atmosphere temperature is monitored during the test. This allows you to control the temperature according to the time / temperature curve specified in the relevant standard. The temperature inside the furnace is measured by "type K" thermocouples. BS 476-22 requires the use of a 1.5 mm probe thermocouple while BS EN 1634-1 requires the use of the "plate thermocouple". Physical differences between measuring devices result in significant differences in their response to temperature increases. The 1.5 mm probe type thermocouple (BS) has a very small mass which responds directly to changes in gas temperature - very low thermal inertia, i.e. a very rapid response. The plate thermocouple device (BS EN) uses a 1 mm thermocouple to monitor the temperature of a steel plate that has been heated by the furnace gases. It takes much more heat to heat the steel plate than to heat the 1.5mm probe tip. As a result, the plate thermocouple is said to have higher thermal inertia and consequently a slower initial response rate. In short, it's like having a car odometer with a weighted pointer: since gas is put in the furnace to create heat with the flames, having a faster instrument to read the temperature, I will put less gas. How can this difference affect the test? In the first ten minutes of the BS EN test, the furnace actually operates between 10 and 34% more than the equivalent test performed according to a BS 476-22 standard. This ten minute period is the time taken to overcome the initial thermal inertia of the plate. After ten minutes the two devices read very similar temperatures. Furnace pressure regime The pressure regime inside the furnace is fundamental for the behavior of the door in question. The positive pressure inside the furnace pushes the hot gases out of the furnace chamber through any gaps in the sample. It is this effect that precipitates the need for thermo-expanding perimeter seals for doors. The difference between the two standards lies in the height at which the neutral axis is placed, i.e. where it passes from positive to negative pressure inside the furnace. The transition point is at a differential pressure of 0 Pa and is known as a plane or axis of neutral pressure. In BS 476-22 this is set at 1 m above the threshold, in BS EN 1634-1 the value is set at 500 mm above the threshold. This involves a different pressure trend with repercussions in the behavior of the sample gaskets. Our experience Considering 20 or 30 minute doors, if the test is 30% easier, you could make doors that cost 30% less. This is not the case, because the fire doors do not size like the ounces of ham at the delicatessen counter. Better to leave a few more slices. Moving forward with the minutes, this difference thins. These considerations obviously do not apply to tests in which plate thermocouples or combined EN + BS tests are used, where the more restrictive parameters would be applied. Exposed side The tests in BS 476-22 have often been carried out on one side only. After the "composite doors" scandal, we saw a race to test from two sides, also in compliance with the circular of the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government of July 31st 2018.
ARE THE TESTS MADE IN UK VALID IN ITALY?
If we are talking about CE marked doors, the marking allows marketing in the states of the Union. Check whether the mandatory characteristics for the recipient country are met and that the documentation is in the language of the country where they are marketed. For more information on marking, go to the CE MARKING section of our website. For unmarked doors, then they must have approval. Attention that the tests are accepted if the laboratory has certain characteristics and if it is part of the EEA market. Which with Brexit, could change for British laboratories. For more information on the approval, go to the APPROVAL section of our website. Clearly, approval can be requested under certain conditions, only if the test has been carried out in BS EN 1634-1 and not in BS 476-22.
THE CHEMOLLI FIRE CONTRIBUTION
When it comes to testing, we provide our experience and our KNOW-HOW. Having always done this type of activity, as specialists, we offer you complete advice during all the laboratory experimentation phases, from design to documentation of results. THE METHOD Listening is the most important phase of our interaction: we want you to develop a product that is the sum of your identity and your needs. First of all, we'll try to understand your real needs, the channels and the markets you want to measure yourself on. Then we will show you how the testing and certification process takes place: we need to deal with you, to fully grasp your point of view. Then, we concert a proposal that respects - compatibly with the required performances - your product lines, your production lines and, as far as possible, the potential economies of scale by using products and methodologies already consolidated in your company. EMPATHY Beyond the opportunities, which we will show you, we will then advise you what we would do, in your shoes. We advise with our experience on what, how and where to test. In which laboratory should you test? In the one that best suits your needs! THE PROJECT Once the key is turned, we prepare a project that is exhaustive of all the details. Which materials and components to use, an important part of our dialogue on which we can best advise you. In addition to this, a cost sheet and a forecast of weights, to allow you to check if your goals will be achieved. Using the best practices in the sector, we are convinced of this. ATYPICAL CONSULTANTS: WE TAKE CARE OF THE TESTING ACTIVITY A consultant gives advice, then lets the client put it into practice. We are not like this: we take off tie and put on our work clothes when needed. Once the production of the samples has been launched, we are present during the gluing of the doors, we offer support during processing and hardware installation, we proceed with our technicians to install the samples in the laboratory and we are physically present at the test. We manage the post-test documentation review phase, we illustrate the documentation and remain available for all issues related to results management.
IN DEPTH
 

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Request info about the certification